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Term Definition
call accounting
Call accounting is similar to call logging but with the focus more on cost control.
call logging
Call logging is the process of collecting data on the phone calls made via a telephony system. The data is supplemented with real-world information and made available for reporting. Analysing the reports provides business intelligence on the telephone network's cost, performance, capacity and quality of service (QoS).
call management
The focus of Call Management is on the efficient running of a telecommunications system. It requires the use of a call logging package to collect and report on the data so that decisions can be made. The term is also becoming synonymous with the Cisco Unified Communications Manager.
Customer-premises equipment, also referred to as customer-provided equipment, is any device that is located at the subscriber's premises (purchased or rented) and is connected to the telecommunications provider's channel at the demarcation point. The point at which the responsibility for any additional equipment and the service shifts from the carrier to the customer.
dial through fraud
See the definition for phone fraud.
An Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is a term used in the electric power industry to describe microprocessor-based controllers of power system equipment, such as circuit breakers, transformers, and capacitor banks.
In-band management is managing the network locally through itself and is based on software that must be installed on the remote system being managed (like VNC, SSH or SNMP tools). It only works after the operating system has been booted and cannot be used to fix problems that prevent the system from booting. This solution may be cheap, but if the network is down, you cannot use the network to reach the affected devices and resolve the problem.

The software on most Cisco routers and network switches is called Cisco IOS (originally Internetwork Operating System). It is a multitasking operating system dedicated to the functions of switching and routing.


Short for IP Security, a set of protocols developed to support the secure exchange of packets at the IP layer, widely used to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

An IPsec Tunnel encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.

For IPsec to work, the sending and receiving devices must share a public key. This is accomplished through a protocol known as Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol/Oakley (ISAKMP/Oakley), which allows the receiver to obtain a public key and authenticate the sender using digital certificates. Source: Webopedia

least privilege
In the security arena the principle of least privilege requires that a person, program or process must be able to access only the legitimate information and resources that are necessary for its given task or role.
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE)

Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) encrypts data in Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)-based dial-up connections or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private network (VPN) connections. 128-bit key (strong), 56-bit key, and 40-bit key (standard) MPPE encryption schemes are supported. MPPE provides data security for the PPTP connection that is between the VPN client and the VPN server.

Network Operations Centre (NOC pronounced like the word knock). A centralised location where a network is monitored, managed and controlled via remote telecommunications links.
Out-of-band management, also known as lights-out management (or LOM) involves the use of a dedicated management channel for device maintenance. It allows a system administrator to monitor and manage servers and other network equipment by remote control regardless of whether the machine is powered on, or if an operating system is installed or functional. The opposite to out-of-band management is in-band management.
packet sniffer

A program and/or device that monitors data travelling over a network. Sniffers can be used both for legitimate network management functions and for stealing information off a network. Source: Webopedia

phone fraud
Phone fraud or telephony fraud encompasses dial-through-fraud, toll fraud and phreaking. It is perpetuated by international organised crime gangs who can earn vast sums in revenue from the fraud. Thieves exploit weaknesses in telephony systems - PBXs in organisations of all sizes - so that they are able to make outbound phone calls through the system with the bill being paid by the victim organisation. The crime gangs either dial premium rate numbers under their control or sell the cut-rate minutes online.
power cycle
To power-cycle a device is the act of turning a piece of equipment off and then on again, via its own power switch or directly through the mains input. This could be done manually but is usually automated and can be operated remotely through another device called a Power Distribution Unit (PDU). The reasons for power cycling include having an electronic device reinitialise its configuration or recover from an unresponsive state of its mission critical functionality, such as in a crash or hang situation.
Short for Point-to-Point Protocol, a method of connecting a computer to the Internet. PPP is more stable than the older SLIP protocol and provides error-checking features. Working in the data link layer of the OSI model, PPP sends the computer's TCP/IP packets to a server that puts them onto the Internet. Source: Webopedia
Privileged Access Management
privileged account
A user/password account that has very high administrative privileges, such as root or admin. For a full definition, read about privileged identity management.
Privileged Identity Management
Privileged Identity Management (PIM), sometimes referred to as Privileged Access Management (PAM) is a subset of Identity Management. Its focus is on the special requirements of powerful accounts within the IT infrastructure. These are called "Privileged Identities" and refer to any type of user or account that holds special or extra permissions within the system. See full definition for different categories of privileged identities.
remote infrastructure management
Remote infrastructure management (RIM) is the remote support, monitoring and management of a company's IT infrastructure such as workstations, servers, network devices, storage devices, IT security devices, etc.
An abbreviation for Software as a Service, otherwise known as on-demand software. It is a delivery model in which the software and any associated data is centrally stored and hosted in the cloud. SaaS applications are typically accessed by users via their web browser. Compared to traditional software models with a perpetual license and up-front capex cost, SaaS is paid out of opex with a subscription fee.
serial console server
A serial console server (serial concentrator or console access server) is a device that provides secure, 24/7 out-of-band access to the system console of a computing device via networking technologies. A console server provides a number of serial ports, which are then connected to the serial ports of other equipment, such as servers, routers or switches. The consoles of the connected devices can then be accessed by connecting to the console server over a serial link such as a modem, or over a network with terminal emulator software such as telnet or ssh, maintaining survivable connectivity that allows remote users to log in to the various consoles without being physically nearby.
A service-level agreement (SLA) is a part of a service contract where a service is formally defined. SLAs commonly include segments to address: a definition of services, performance measurement, problem management, customer duties, warranties, disaster recovery, termination of agreement. In order to ensure that SLAs are consistently met, these agreements are often designed with specific lines of demarcation and contract enforcement (rewards and penalties) are rigidly enforced.
Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data − a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. Source: Webopedia

TACACS stands for Terminal Access Controller Access Control System. It is an encrypted authentication protocol common to UNIX networks and has been superseded by TACACS+. It allows a remote access server to forward a user's logon password to an authentication server to determine whether access can be allowed to a given system.

TDM Telephony
TDM stands for Time Divisional Multiplexing and is the traditional method of sending multiple phone conversations (or signals) down a single wire. It achieved this by dividing multiple conversations into equal fixed-length time slots and alternately sending a small piece of each conversation down the wire at a time. Both the sender and receiver were synchronised so that the conversations could be reassembled again.
telephony fraud
See the definition for phone fraud.
toll fraud
See the definition for phone fraud.
Tracker Remote Node
A Tracker is a product developed by Data Track Technology. It is a rackmount appliance based on the Linux OS. It has been developed as a remote site manager and is very customisable. It can act as a serial console server, data logger, alarm/event manager, environmental monitor and more.